Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

Daily Summaries

browse graphicMap of GHCN-Daily stations
The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3 was released in September 2012 with the addition of data from two additional station networks. Changes to the processing system associated with the version 3 release also allowed for updates to occur 7 days a week rather than only on most weekdays. Version 3 contains station-based measurements from well over 90,000 land-based stations worldwide, about two thirds of which are for precipitation measurement only. Other meteorological elements include, but are not limited to, daily maximum and minimum temperature, temperature at the time of observation, snowfall and snow depth. Over 25,000 stations are regularly updated with observations from within roughly the last month. The dataset is also routinely reconstructed (usually every week) from its roughly 30 data sources to ensure that GHCN-Daily is generally in sync with its growing list of constituent sources. During this process, quality assurance checks are applied to the full dataset. Where possible, GHCN-Daily station data are also updated daily from a variety of data streams. Station values for each daily update also undergo a suite of quality checks.

Cite this dataset when used as a source: Menne, Matthew J., Imke Durre, Bryant Korzeniewski, Shelley McNeal, Kristy Thomas, Xungang Yin, Steven Anthony, Ron Ray, Russell S. Vose, Byron E.Gleason, and Tamara G. Houston (2012): Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Climatic Data Center. doi:10.7289/V5D21VHZ [access date].

Publications citing this dataset should also cite the following article: Matthew J. Menne, Imke Durre, Russell S. Vose, Byron E. Gleason, and Tamara G. Houston, 2012: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily Database. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 29, 897-910. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00103.1.

Dataset Information
Online Access
Distribution Formats
  • CSV
  • fixed-length ASCII text
  • ArcGIS
  • KMZ
  • PDF
DistributorDOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Dataset  Point of Contact GHCN-Daily Operations Team
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 828-271-4800
ncdc.ghcnd@noaa.gov
General Documentation
  • GHCN-Daily Landing Page
    Global Historical Climate Network includes daily land surface observations from around the world. The GHCN-Daily was developed to meet the needs of climate analysis and monitoring studies that require data at a sub-monthly time resolution (e.g., assessments of the frequency of heavy rainfall, heat wave duration, etc.). The dataset includes observations from World Meteorological Organization, Cooperative, and CoCoRaHS networks. If observed, the station dataset includes max and minimum temperatures, total precipitation, snowfall, and depth of snow on ground. Some U.S. station data are typically delayed only 24 hours.
  • GHCN-Daily Station Inventory
    Contains the name, country, most recent location, and network affiliation of each station.
  • NCEI Dataset Documentation
    Documentation of the dataset including a data description, format layout and other metadata.
Processing Documents
Associated Resources
Publisher
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Principal Investigator
  • Menne, Matthew J.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Principal Investigator
  • Durre, Imke
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Korzeniewski, Bryant
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • McNeill, Shelley
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Thomas, Kristy
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Yin, Xungang
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Anthony, Steven
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Ray, Ron
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Vose, Russell S.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Gleason, Byron E.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Collaborator
  • Houston, Tamara G.
    DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Date(s)
  • publication: 2012-09-24
Edition:Version 3
Data Presentation Form: Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status On Going
Data Update Frequency: Daily
Purpose:Global Historical Climate Network includes daily land surface observations from around the world. The GHCN-Daily was developed to meet the needs of climate analysis and monitoring studies that require data at a sub-monthly time resolution (e.g., assessments of the frequency of heavy rainfall, heat wave duration, etc.). The dataset includes observations from World Meteorological Organization, Cooperative, and CoCoRaHS networks. If observed, the station dataset includes max and minimum temperatures, total precipitation, snowfall, and depth of snow on ground. Some U.S. station data are typically delayed only 24 hours.
Use Limitations
  • The dataset cannot be used to quantify all aspects of climate variability and change without any additional processing. In general, the stations providing daily observations were not managed to meet the desired standards for climate monitoring. Rather, the stations were deployed to meet the demands of agriculture, hydrology, weather forecasting, aviation, etc. GHCN-Daily data have not been homogenized to account for the potential artifacts associated with the various reporting practices at stations. Users must consider whether the potential for changes in systematic bias might be important for their particular application.
Time Period:1880-01-01  to  Present (time interval: 1-day)
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates:
N: 83.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map:
Theme keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > MAXIMUM/MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > SOLID PRECIPITATION > SNOW
  • EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW DEPTH
Data Center keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Place keywords
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL LAND
Stratum keywords
  • VERTICAL LOCATION > LAND SURFACE
Use Constraints
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source: Menne, Matthew J., Imke Durre, Bryant Korzeniewski, Shelley McNeal, Kristy Thomas, Xungang Yin, Steven Anthony, Ron Ray, Russell S. Vose, Byron E.Gleason, and Tamara G. Houston (2012): Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3. [indicate subset used]. NOAA National Climatic Data Center. doi:10.7289/V5D21VHZ [access date].
  • Publications citing this dataset should also cite the following article: Matthew J. Menne, Imke Durre, Russell S. Vose, Byron E. Gleason, and Tamara G. Houston, 2012: An Overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network-Daily Database. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 29, 897-910. doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-11-00103.1.
  • NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NCEI makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage StatementThe data were produced by and are archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).
Processor
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Processing Steps
  • The process of integrating data from multiple sources into the GHCN-Daily dataset takes place in three steps: 1) screening the source data for stations whose identity is unknown or questionable; 2) classifying each station in a source dataset either as one that is already represented in GHCN-Daily or as a new site; and 3) mingling the data from the different sources.
    Rationale: The first two integration steps are performed whenever a new source dataset or additional stations become available, while the actual mingling of data is part of the automated processing that creates GHCN-Daily on a regular basis.
  • During each reprocessing cycle, the data are first passed through a "format checking program" that looks for problems such as impossible months or days, invalid characters in data fields, etc.
    Rationale: The primary purpose of the QC program is to ensure that the data integration procedures do not either introduce or retain records that violate the intended and documented GHCN-Daily data format.
  • NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Processing Documents
Source Datasets
  • GHCN-Daily Source Data
    • GHCN-Daily Source Data
      Provides description of various International source data used.
    • Description of Source: Various International source datasets were used.
    • Temporal extent used:  1880-01-01  to  present
    • Spatial extent used:   N: 83.0   S: -90.0   E: 180.0   W: -180.0

Last Modified: 2016-05-05

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