Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 2 (Version Superseded)

**Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used this version).** The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset addresses the need for historical daily records over global land areas. Like its monthly counterpart (GHCN-Monthly), GHCN-Daily is a composite of climate records from numerous sources that were merged and then subjected to a suite of quality assurance reviews. The meteorological elements measured for the data set include, but are not limited to, daily maximum and minimum temperature, temperature at the time of observation, precipitation (i.e., rainfall and snow water equivalent), snowfall and snow depth. GHCN-Daily serves as the official archive for daily data from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Surface Network (GSN) and is particularly well suited for monitoring and assessment activities related to the frequency and magnitude of extremes. Sources for the GHCN-Daily data set include, but are not limited, to U.S. Cooperative Summary of the Day, U.S. Fort data, U.S. Climate Reference Network, Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network, and numerous international sources. The dataset contains measurements from over 75,000 stations worldwide,about two thirds of which are for precipitation measurement only. Approximately 8500 are regularly updated with observations from within the last month. While most of these sites report precipitation, daily maximum and minimum temperatures are available at more than 25,000 of them, and over 24,000 contain records of snowfall and/or snow depth. The process of integrating data from multiple sources into the GHCN-Daily dataset takes place in three steps: screening the source data for stations whose identity is unknown or questionable; classifying each station in a source dataset either as one that is already represented in GHCN-Daily or as a new site; and mingling the data from the different sources. The first two of these steps are performed whenever a new source dataset or additional stations become available, while the actual mingling of data is part of the automated processing that creates GHCN-Daily on a regular basis. GHCN-Daily data are subject to a suite of quality assurance checks. The checks consist of several types of carefully evaluated tests that detect duplicated data, climatological outliers, and various inconsistencies (internal, temporal, and spatial). Manual review of random samples of flagged values was used to set the threshold for each procedure such that the tests false-positive rate is minimized. In addition, the tests are performed in a deliberate sequence in an effort to enhance the performance of the later checks by detecting errors with the checks applied earlier in the sequence.
Cite this dataset when used as a source.
  • NCEI DSI 9101_01
  • gov.noaa.ncdc:C00838
Order Data
  • NCEI Customer Support (order)
    NCEI provides customers with information and data from the NCEI archive. To order NCEI products and services contact the customer support team.
Distribution Formats
  • fixed-length ASCII text
Distributor Customer Engagement Branch
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
1-828-271-4800
ncei.orders@noaa.gov
Dataset Point of Contact GHCN-Daily Operations Team
DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
+1 828-271-4800
ncdc.ghcnd@noaa.gov
General Documentation
Processing Documents
Associated Resources
Date(s)
  • publication: 2006-12-21
Edition: Version 2
Data Presentation Form: Digital table - digital representation of facts or figures systematically displayed, especially in columns
Dataset Progress Status superseded
Data Update Frequency: Not planned
Purpose: The GHCN-Daily was developed to meet the needs of climate analysis and monitoring studies that require data at a sub-monthly time resolution (e.g., assessments of the frequency of heavy rainfall, heat wave duration, etc.). It also serves as NCDC's sole source of U.S. Summary of the Day data, providing a diverse array of users in the public and private sector with weather and climate observations that meet needs from the local to national level. By bringing together contributions from dozens of national and international sources and combining historical with near real-time observations, this dataset helps users understand todays climate and how it impacts society while helping users prepare for weather and climate conditions in the future.
Use Limitations
  • The dataset cannot be used to quantify all aspects of climate variability and change without any additional processing. In general, the stations providing daily observations were not managed to meet the desired standards for climate monitoring. Rather, the stations were deployed to meet the demands of agriculture, hydrology, weather forecasting, aviation, etc. GHCN-Daily data have not been homogenized to account for the potential artifacts associated with the various reporting practices at stations. Users must consider whether the potential for changes in systematic bias might be important for their particular application.
Originator(s)
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Publisher(s)
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Time Period: 1880-01-01 to 2012-09-23 (time interval: 1-day)
Spatial Bounding Box Coordinates:
N: 83.0
S: -90.0
E: 180.0
W: -180.0
Spatial Coverage Map:
Theme keywords NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Science and Services Keywords
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > MAXIMUM/MINIMUM TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE > SURFACE TEMPERATURE > AIR TEMPERATURE
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > PRECIPITATION AMOUNT
  • EARTH SCIENCE > ATMOSPHERE > PRECIPITATION > SOLID PRECIPITATION > SNOW
  • EARTH SCIENCE > TERRESTRIAL HYDROSPHERE > SNOW/ICE > SNOW DEPTH
Data Center keywords NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Data Center Keywords
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCEI > National Centers for Environmental Information, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Place keywords NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • GEOGRAPHIC REGION > GLOBAL LAND
Stratum keywords NASA Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Location Keywords
  • VERTICAL LOCATION > LAND SURFACE
Use Constraints
  • **Please note, this dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use this version except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that used this version).**
  • Cite this dataset when used as a source.
  • NCEI cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in the data, nor as a result of the failure of the data to function on a particular system. NCEI makes no warranty, expressed or implied, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NCEI can only certify that the data it distributes are an authentic copy of the records that were accepted for inclusion in the NCEI archives.
Fees
  • In most cases, electronic downloads of the data are free, however fees may apply for data certifications, copies of analog materials, and data distribution on physical media.
Lineage information for: dataset
Lineage Statement The data were produced by and are archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI).
Processor
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
  • DOC/NOAA/NESDIS/NCDC > National Climatic Data Center, NESDIS, NOAA, U.S. Department of Commerce
Processing Steps
  • The process of integrating data from multiple sources into the GHCN-Daily dataset takes place in three steps: 1) screening the source data for stations whose identity is unknown or questionable; 2) classifying each station in a source dataset either as one that is already represented in GHCN-Daily or as a new site; and 3) mingling the data from the different sources.
    Rationale: The first two integration steps are performed whenever a new source dataset or additional stations become available, while the actual mingling of data is part of the automated processing that creates GHCN-Daily on a regular basis.
  • During each reprocessing cycle, the data are first passed through a "format checking program" that looks for problems such as impossible months or days, invalid characters in data fields, etc.
    Rationale: The primary purpose of the QC program is to ensure that the data integration procedures do not either introduce or retain records that violate the intended and documented GHCN-Daily data format.
Processing Documents
Source Datasets
  • GHCN-Daily Source Data
    • GHCN-Daily Source Data
      Provides description of various International source data used.
    • Description of Source: Various International source datasets were used.
    • Temporal extent used: 1880-01-01 to 2012-09-23
    • Spatial extent used: N:83.0 S:-90.0 E:180.0 W:-180.0
Lineage information for: repository
Processing Steps
  • 2015-04-22T00:00:00 - NOAA created the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) by merging NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), and National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), including the National Coastal Data Development Center (NCDDC), per the Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2015, Public Law 113-235. NCEI launched publicly on April 22, 2015.
Acquisition Information (collection)
Instrument
  • In Situ/Laboratory Instruments > Gauges > RAIN GAUGES
  • In Situ/Laboratory Instruments > Temperature/Humidity Sensors > Thermometers > THERMOMETERS
Platform
  • In Situ Land-based Platforms > WEATHER STATIONS/NETWORKS > METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS
Last Modified: 2016-05-05
For questions about the information on this page, please email: ncdc.metadata@noaa.gov